Free-hand Sketches

Representation Learning for Sketches

Human beings have been creating free-hand sketches, i.e., drawings without precise instruments, since time immemorial. Due to the popularity of touchscreen interfaces, machine learning using sketches has emerged as an interesting problem with a myriad of applications: If we consider sketches as 2D images, we can throw them into off-the-shelf Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). While CNNs are designed for static collections of pixels with dense colors and textures, sketches are usually an extremely sparse sequences of strokes which capture high-level abstractions and ideas. Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) stick out as a natural architecture for capturing this temporal nature of sketches.

Structure vs. temporal order: can we have the best of both worlds?

Sketches as Graphs

We are working on a novel representation of free-hand sketches as sparsely-connected graphs. We assume that sketches are sets of curves and strokes, which are discretized by a set of points representing the graph nodes. Each node encodes spatial, temporal and semantic information. Thus, representing sketches with graphs offers a universal representation that can make use of both the sketch structure (like images) as well as temporal information (like stroke sequences). To exploit these graph structures, we are developing Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) based on the Transformer model [Vaswani et al., 2017].

Chaitanya Joshi
Research Assistant

Chaitanya Joshi is a Research Assistant under Dr. Xavier Bresson at NTU, Singapore, applying Graph Neural Networks to Operations Research and Combinatorial Optimization.